Poor sleep associates with mental and cardiometabolic pathological outcomes. The participation of sleep timing features in the pathways by which this relationship occurs is not clear.
This study aims to evaluate the interrelationship between sleep quality and self-reported psychiatric/cardiometabolic symptoms, considering mediation and moderation effects of sleep timing patterns, and urban versus rural work environment, respectively; and to verify the association between sleep quality and polymorphisms of AANAT, RORA and TIMELESS genes. An epidemiological survey was performed in a rural area in southern Brazil. Eight-hundred and twenty-nine subjects were evaluated for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and sleep timing patterns using the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Work characteristics and psychiatric/cardiometabolic symptoms were assessed using a structured self-report questionnaire. Three polymorphisms of AANAT, RORA and TIMELESS (rs3760138, rs782931 and rs774045, respectively) were genotyped in blood samples. We found statistically significant associations of poor sleep quality with self-reported psychiatric symptoms (B = 0.382; 95% CI 0.289-0.476; adjusted p-value <.001), and with self-reported cardiometabolic symptoms (B = 0.079; 95% CI 0.013-0.151; adjusted p-value = .048). The genetic analysis showed that RORA GA/AA genotype was associated to poor sleep quality (B = 0.146, 95% CI 0.054-0.239; adjusted p-value = .004). No moderated mediation effects were observed in the conditional analysis.
TIMELESS polymorphism was not included in the analysis due to the low frequency of risk genotypes. These results yield new insights regarding the interrelationship between sleep characteristics and psychiatric/cardiometabolic self-reported symptoms, taking into account genes related to the biological clocks and melatonin pathways.