Medical Studies on Melatonin – Metabolism
It has long been known that melatonin is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and energy balance. More recent studies have also demonstrated that an impairment of the interaction between melatonin and the receptor can contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms behind this are not yet understood.
Lifestyle affects insulin resistance
There may be many reasons for the development of insulin resistance, resulting in dysfunction of the body’s sugar metabolism, but one of the main factors is the disruption of the 24-hour circadian rhythm – researchers agree on this. Sleep problems, shift work and social jet lag have been named as examples of how the likelihood of insulin resistance and the resultant diabetes can be increased. Melatonin seems to play a key role here, as the body’s own melatonin production is suppressed or delayed in cases of all the aforementioned disorders.
Timing of food consumption is critical
Studies have also discovered that the timing of food intake also plays a key role here. For example, people who engage in shift and night work are at much greater risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome, which presents a high risk of both cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These people are forced to eat at times where the body’s internal melatonin production is often highest – a situation that is not especially helpful in relation to the physiological effect of insulin.
Insulin is cyclically released at the three main mealtimes – which should always be during the day, namely times when melatonin concentration is lowest. Insulin is also released when eating a quick snack, but the sugar is not used physiologically, which can result in obesity.
Medical Studies on Melatonin – Metabolism
Plasma melatonin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy secondary to type 2 diabetes
Melatonin is reported to be related to diabetes mellitus (DM) risk; however, the effect of melatonin on diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on DR risk.
Melatonin is a potential adjuvant to improve clinical outcomes in individuals with obesity and diabetes with coexistence of Covid-19
Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a newly discovered highly pathogenic virus that was declared pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The virus affects the respiratory system, produces an inflammatory storm that causes lung damage and respiratory dysfunction. It infects humans of all ages.
The Effects of Melatonin Supplementation on Parameters of Mental Health, Glycemic Control, Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk, and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
This study evaluated the effects of melatonin supplementation on parameters of mental health, glycemic control, markers of cardiometabolic risk, and oxidative stress in diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients.
Melatonin in Mitochondria: Mitigating Clear and Present Dangers.
In cancer cells, glucose is primarily metabolized to pyruvate and then to lactate in the cytosol.
Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Melatonin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Periodontal Disease Under Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.
The imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems often leads to further oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and periodontal disease. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with periodontal disease (PD) under non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT).
Selective slow-wave sleep suppression affects glucose tolerance and melatonin secretion. The role of sleep architecture.
Our study aimed to assess the impact of one night of slow-wave sleep (SWS) suppression on glucose tolerance, and explore whether melatonin plays a role in glucose tolerance impairment after SWS suppression.
Melatonin Effects on Glucose Metabolism: Time To Unlock the Controversy.
The past decade has witnessed a revival of interest in the hormone melatonin, partly attributable to the discovery that genetic variation in MTNR1B - the melatonin receptor gene - is a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Night shift work, short sleep and obesity.
Obesity is associated with increased general mortality and comorbidities, it is multifactorial and some evidence has shown that sleep duration and shift work may be implicated in its pathogenesis.
The association between sleep chronotype and obesity among black and white participants of the Bogalusa Heart Study.
Research indicates that sleep duration and quality are inter-related factors that contribute to obesity, but few studies have focused on sleep chronotype, representing an individual's circadian proclivity, nor assessed these factors in racially diverse middle-aged samples.
Effect of acute total sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin, cortisol and metabolite rhythms in females.
Disruption to sleep and circadian rhythms can impact on metabolism. The study aimed to investigate the effect of acute sleep deprivation on plasma melatonin, cortisol and metabolites, to increase understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in sleep/wake regulation processes.
The Circadian Syndrome: is the Metabolic Syndrome and much more!
The Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and comorbidities conveying high risk of both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is responsible for huge socio-economic costs with its resulting morbidity and mortality in most countries. The underlying aetiology of this clustering has been the subject of much debate.
Melatonin Signaling a Key Regulator of Glucose Homeostasis and Energy Metabolism.
Melatonin, a hormone synthesized by both the pineal gland and retina, functions as an important modulator of a number of physiological functions. In addition to its rather well-established roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms, sleep, and reproduction, melatonin has also been identified as an important regulator of glucose metabolism.
Melatonin: Countering Chaotic Time Cues.
Last year melatonin was 60 years old, or at least its discovery was 60 years ago. The molecule itself may well be almost as old as life itself. So it is time to take yet another perspective on our understanding of its functions, effects and clinical uses.
New Insights Into the Circadian Rhythm and Its Related Diseases.
Circadian rhythms (CR) are a series of endogenous autonomous oscillators generated by the molecular circadian clock which acting on coordinating internal time with the external environment in a 24-h daily cycle.
Circadian Clock Genes in Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD).
The purpose of this review is to provide a brief summary about the current state of knowledge regarding the circadian rhythm in the regulation of normal renal function.
Chronodisruption, Metabolic Homeostasis, and the Regulation of Inflammation in Adipose Tissues.
Molecular circadian clocks align daily behavioral and metabolic rhythms with the external day-night cycle. Priming energy metabolism for recurring changes on a 24-hour basis, these clocks are deeply interlinked with metabolic homeostasis and health.
Interplay between diet, exercise and the molecular circadian clock in orchestrating metabolic adaptations of adipose tissue.
Disruption of circadian rhythmicity induced by prolonged light exposure, altered sleep patterns and shift work is associated with the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Circadian clocks and insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance is a main determinant in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and a major cause of morbidity and mortality.
Significance and application of melatonin in the regulation of brown adipose tissue metabolism: relation to human obesity.
A worldwide increase in the incidence of obesity indicates the unsuccessful battle against this disorder. Obesity and the associated health problems urgently require effective strategies of treatment.
Melatonin: action as antioxidant and potential applications in human disease and aging.
This review aims at describing the beneficial properties of melatonin related to its antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress, i.e., an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defences, is involved in several pathological conditions such as cardiovascular or neurological disease, and in aging. Therefore, research for antioxidants has developed. However, classical antioxidants often failed to exhibit beneficial effects, especially in metabolic diseases.
Function and expression of melatonin receptors on human pancreatic islets.
Melatonin is known to inhibit insulin secretion from rodent beta-cells through interactions with cell-surface MT1 and/or MT2 receptors, but the function of this hormone in human islets of Langerhans is not known.
Melatonin, endocrine pancreas and diabetes.
Melatonin influences insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro.
Diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats as well as type 2 diabetic patients show a decreased diurnal serum melatonin level and an increased pancreatic melatonin-receptor status.
There are functional inter-relationships between the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas and the pineal gland, where the synchronizing circadian molecule melatonin originates. The aim of this study was to elucidate a putative interaction between insulin and melatonin in diabetic patients and a diabetic rat model.
Melatonin levels decrease in type 2 diabetic patients with cardiac autonomic neuropathy.
The present study has been designed to determine melatonin levels in type 2 diabetic patients and test the relationship between the autonomic nervous system and melatonin dynamics.