Medical Studies on Melatonin – Metabolism


It has long been known that melatonin is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and energy balance. More recent studies have also demonstrated that an impairment of the interaction between melatonin and the receptor can contribute to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although the mechanisms behind this are not yet understood.

Lifestyle affects insulin resistance

There may be many reasons for the development of insulin resistance, resulting in dysfunction of the body’s sugar metabolism, but one of the main factors is the disruption of the 24-hour circadian rhythm – researchers agree on this. Sleep problems, shift work and social jet lag have been named as examples of how the likelihood of insulin resistance and the resultant diabetes can be increased. Melatonin seems to play a key role here, as the body’s own melatonin production is suppressed or delayed in cases of all the aforementioned disorders.

Timing of food consumption is critical

Studies have also discovered that the timing of food intake also plays a key role here. For example, people who engage in shift and night work are at much greater risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome, which presents a high risk of both cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These people are forced to eat at times where the body’s internal melatonin production is often highest – a situation that is not especially helpful in relation to the physiological effect of insulin.

Circadian insulin

Insulin is cyclically released at the three main mealtimes – which should always be during the day, namely times when melatonin concentration is lowest. Insulin is also released when eating a quick snack, but the sugar is not used physiologically, which can result in obesity.

Medical Studies on Melatonin – Metabolism

Melatonin is a potential adjuvant to improve clinical outcomes in individuals with obesity and diabetes with coexistence of Covid-19

2020-09 El-Missiry MA, El-Missiry ZMA, Othman AI

Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a newly discovered highly pathogenic virus that was declared pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The virus affects the respiratory system, produces an inflammatory storm that causes lung damage and respiratory dysfunction. It infects humans of all ages.

The Effects of Melatonin Supplementation on Parameters of Mental Health, Glycemic Control, Markers of Cardiometabolic Risk, and Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

2020-05 Ostadmohammadi V, Soleimani A, Bahmani F, Aghadavod E, Ramezani R, Reiter RJ, Mansournia MA, Banikazemi Z, Soleimani M, Zaroudi M, Asemi Z

This study evaluated the effects of melatonin supplementation on parameters of mental health, glycemic control, markers of cardiometabolic risk, and oxidative stress in diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients.

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Melatonin in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Periodontal Disease Under Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

2020-03 Zare Javid A, Hosseini SA, Gholinezhad H, Moradi L, Haghighi-Zadeh MH, Bazyar H

The imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems often leads to further oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of both diabetes and periodontal disease. This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with periodontal disease (PD) under non-surgical periodontal therapy (NSPT).

The Circadian Syndrome: is the Metabolic Syndrome and much more!

2019-08 Zimmet P, Alberti KGMM, Stern N, Bilu C, El-Osta A, Einat H, Kronfeld-Schor N

The Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and comorbidities conveying high risk of both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is responsible for huge socio-economic costs with its resulting morbidity and mortality in most countries. The underlying aetiology of this clustering has been the subject of much debate.

Melatonin: action as antioxidant and potential applications in human disease and aging.

2010-11 Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Collin F.

This review aims at describing the beneficial properties of melatonin related to its antioxidant effects. Oxidative stress, i.e., an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant defences, is involved in several pathological conditions such as cardiovascular or neurological disease, and in aging. Therefore, research for antioxidants has developed. However, classical antioxidants often failed to exhibit beneficial effects, especially in metabolic diseases.

Diabetic Goto Kakizaki rats as well as type 2 diabetic patients show a decreased diurnal serum melatonin level and an increased pancreatic melatonin-receptor status.

2006-03 Peschke E, Frese T, Chankiewitz E, Peschke D, Preiss U, Schneyer U, Spessert R, Mühlbauer E

There are functional inter-relationships between the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas and the pineal gland, where the synchronizing circadian molecule melatonin originates. The aim of this study was to elucidate a putative interaction between insulin and melatonin in diabetic patients and a diabetic rat model.

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