Medical Studies on Melatonin – Latest Facts
You want to get a fast overview on the latest research on melatonin and its multiple applications? – In this category you will find the most important studies listed separately; of course, these are also assigned to the respective subject areas.
The selection of the presented papers was made by the scientific committee of Interchron, the international forum for chronobiology, and it will be updated continuously.
Medical Studies on Melatonin – Latest Facts
The Effect of Melatonin on Thrombosis, Sepsis and Mortality Rate in COVID-19 Patients
This study aimed to determine the effect of melatonin on thrombosis, sepsis, and mortality rate in adult patients with severe coronavirus infection (COVID-19).
Melatonin reduces the mortality of severely-infected COVID-19 patients
SARS-CoV-2 has ravaged the population of the world for two years. Scientists have not yet identified an effective therapy to reduce the mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. In a single-center, open-label, randomized clinical trial, it was observed that melatonin treatment lowered the mortality rate by 93% in severely-infected COVID-19 patients compared with the control group (see below). This is seemingly the first report to show such a huge mortality reduction in severe COVID-19 infected individuals with a simple treatment. If this observation is confirmed by more rigorous clinical trials, melatonin could become an important weapon to combat this pandemic.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Key Emphasis on Melatonin Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy
Viral infections constitute a tectonic convulsion in the normophysiology of the hosts. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not an exception, and therefore the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, like any other invading microbe, enacts a generalized immune response once the virus contacts the body.
A preliminar study of a neuroimmune regimen with low-dose angiotensin 1-7 plus melatonin to improve the safety of covid 19 vaccine
In experimental conditions, it has been demonstrated that vaccine efficacy and the toxicity is depending on cytokine-induced immunoinflammatory response, and that they may be modulate through a neuroimmune approach, which neuroendocrine agents, such as the pineal hormone melatonin (MLT) and the enzymatic product of ACE2, the angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7). On these bases, a preliminary study was planned to evaluate the influence of an oral peri-vaccination regimen with MLT plus Ang 1-7 on the subjective safety of Covid19 Pfizer-BioNTech (PF) and AstraZeneca (AZ) vaccines.
Efficacy of a Low Dose of Melatonin as an Adjunctive Therapy in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized, Double-blind Clinical Trial
Melatonin has been known as an anti-inflammatory agent and immune modulator that may address progressive pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Aim of the study. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of adjuvant, use of melatonin in patients with COVID-19.
Evaluation of Th1 and Th2 mediated cellular and humoral immunity in patients with COVID-19 following the use of melatonin as an adjunctive treatment
Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly in the world and is still taking a heavy toll. Studies show that cytokine storms and imbalances in T-helper (Th)1/Th2 play a significant role in most acute cases of the disease.
Melatonergic index as a prognostic biomarker of reproductive organ cancers: correlations with metabolic parameters as well as clock genes PER1 and TIMELESS
Cancers of the reproductive organs are often hard to be detected, and patients’ survival rate drops considerably even when the tumor is removed.
Inflammation, immunity and potential target therapy of SARS-COV-2: A total scale analysis review
Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a complex disease that causes illness ranging from mild to severe respiratory problems. It is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) that is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus belongs to coronavirus CoV family.
Blood melatonin level can serve as a potential biomarker for prostate and hepatocellular carcinomas
Many systemic functions display circadian rhythms driven by an endogenous mechanism that is regulated by circadian-related genes and these gene expressions control a central clock in the brain and subordinate clocks in peripheral tissues. However, modern life has introduced environmental factors that often interfere with natural circadian rhythms. Importantly, circadian disruption has been identified as an independent risk factor of cancers.
SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses negatively influence mitochondrial quality control: beneficial effects of melatonin
Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a group of single stranded RNA viruses, of which some of them such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 are associated with deadly worldwide human diseases. Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a condition caused by SARS-CoV-2, results in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) associated with high mortality in the elderly and in people with underlying comorbidities.
Plasma melatonin levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy secondary to type 2 diabetes
Melatonin is reported to be related to diabetes mellitus (DM) risk; however, the effect of melatonin on diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin on DR risk.
Melatonin: From Pharmacokinetics to Clinical Use in Autism Spectrum Disorder
The role of melatonin has been extensively investigated in pathophysiological conditions, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Reduced melatonin secretion has been reported in ASD and led to many clinical trials using immediate-release and prolonged-release oral formulations of melatonin. However, melatonin’s effects in ASD and the choice of formulation type require further study.
Role of Melatonin on Virus-Induced Neuropathogenesis-A Concomitant Therapeutic Strategy to Understand SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
Viral infections may cause neurological disorders by directly inducing oxidative stress and interrupting immune system function, both of which contribute to neuronal death. Several reports have described the neurological manifestations in Covid-19 patients where, in severe cases of the infection, brain inflammation and encephalitis are common.
Relationship Between Sleep Quality and the Psychological Status of Patients Hospitalised with COVID-19
We explored the sleep quality of patients who required mental health and clinical interventions in our hospital after being diagnosed with COVID-19.
Anti-Warburg Effect of Melatonin: A Proposed Mechanism to Explain its Inhibition of Multiple Diseases
Glucose is an essential nutrient for every cell but its metabolic fate depends on cellular phenotype. Normally, the product of cytosolic glycolysis, pyruvate, is transported into mitochondria and irreversibly converted to acetyl coenzyme A by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC).
Melatonin-Index as a biomarker for predicting the distribution of presymptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers
The pandemic dissemination of the SARS-CoV-2 led, on the one hand, to a worldwide effort to develop mechanistic-based therapeutics and vaccines, and on the other hand, the searching for determining the spreaders and the mechanisms of transmission. Melatonin, a multitask molecule, orchestrates defense responses by allowing the proper mounting, duration, and magnitude of innate immune responses.
An urgent proposal for the immediate use of melatonin as an adjuvant to anti- SARS-CoV-2 vaccination
Competition among pharmaceutical companies to develop safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 is high. However, based on the prior experience with the influenza vaccine, up to 50% in lack of effectiveness would be found among healthy adults receiving effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.
Evening home lighting adversely impacts the circadian system and sleep
The regular rise and fall of the sun resulted in the development of 24-h rhythms in virtually all organisms. In an evolutionary heartbeat, humans have taken control of their light environment with electric light. Humans are highly sensitive to light, yet most people now use light until bedtime. We evaluated the impact of modern home lighting environments in relation to sleep and individual-level light sensitivity using a new wearable spectrophotometer.
Can Melatonin Be a Potential “Silver Bullet” in Treating COVID-19 Patients?
The therapeutic potential of melatonin as a chronobiotic cytoprotective agent to counteract the consequences of COVID-19 infections has been advocated. Because of its wide-ranging effects as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory compound, melatonin could be unique in impairing the consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
A Network Medicine Approach to Investigation and Population-based Validation of Disease Manifestations and Drug Repurposing for COVID-19
The global Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to unprecedented social and economic consequences. The risk of morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19 increases dramatically in the presence of co-existing medical conditions while the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Furthermore, there are no proven effective therapies for COVID-19. This study aims to identify SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, diseases manifestations, and COVID-19 therapies using network medicine methodologies along with clinical and multi-omics observations.
Melatonin is significantly associated with survival of intubated COVID-19 patients
Respiratory distress requiring intubation is the most serious complication associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this retrospective study, we used survival analysis to determine whether or not mortality following intubation was associated with hormone exposure in patients treated at New York Presbyterian/ Columbia University Irving Medical Center. Here, we report the overall hazards ratio for each hormone for exposure before and after intubation for intubated and mechanically ventilated patients.
Targeting Host Defense System and Rescuing Compromised Mitochondria to Increase Tolerance against Pathogens by Melatonin May Impact Outcome of Deadly Virus Infection Pertinent to COVID-19
Fighting infectious diseases, particularly viral infections, is a demanding task for human health. Targeting the pathogens or targeting the host are different strategies, but with an identical purpose, i.e., to curb the pathogen's spreading and cure the illness. It appears that targeting a host to increase tolerance against pathogens can be of substantial advantage and is a strategy used in evolution.
Melatonin is a potential adjuvant to improve clinical outcomes in individuals with obesity and diabetes with coexistence of Covid-19
Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a newly discovered highly pathogenic virus that was declared pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The virus affects the respiratory system, produces an inflammatory storm that causes lung damage and respiratory dysfunction. It infects humans of all ages.
Structural and physico-chemical evaluation of melatonin and its solution-state excited properties, with emphasis on its binding with novel coronavirus proteins
Melatonin is a natural hormone from the pineal gland that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. We examined the structure and physico-chemical properties of melatonin using electronic structure methods and molecular-mechanics tools. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to optimise the ground-state geometry of the molecule from frontier molecular orbitals, which were analysed using the B3LYP functional.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Its Neuroinvasive Capacity: Is It Time for Melatonin?
The world faces an exceptional new public health concern caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), subsequently termed the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Lungs as target of COVID-19 infection: Protective common molecular mechanisms of vitamin D and melatonin as a new potential synergistic treatment
COVID-19 pandemic has a high mortality rate and is affecting practically the entire world population. The leading cause of death is severe acute respiratory syndrome as a consequence of exacerbated inflammatory response accompanied by uncontrolled oxidative stress as well as the inflammatory reaction at the lung level.
Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress and anti-viral activities: A novel therapeutic target for COVID-19
The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by 2019-nCov/SARS-CoV-2 has become a pandemic with an urgent need for understanding the mechanisms and identifying a treatment.
Melatonin Suppresses Renal Cortical Fibrosis by Inhibiting Cytoskeleton Reorganization and Mitochondrial Dysfunction through Regulation of miR-4516
Renal fibrosis, a major risk factor for kidney failure, can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is caused by cytoskeleton reorganization and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the potential of melatonin treatment to reduce renal fibrosis by recovering the cytoskeleton reorganization and mitochondrial dysfunction.
The effect of melatonin on reduction in the need for sedative agents and duration of mechanical ventilation in traumatic intracranial hemorrhage patients: a randomized controlled trial
This study aimed to determine the effect of exogenous melatonin on the number of sedative drugs and the duration of mechanical ventilation in traumatic intracranial hemorrhage patients in ICU.
Matrix metallopeptidase 9 as a host protein target of chloroquine and melatonin for immunoregulation in COVID-19: A network-based meta-analysis
The molecular pathogenesis of COVID-19 is similar to other coronavirus (CoV) infections viz. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in human. Due to scarcity of the suitable treatment strategy, the present study was undertaken to explore host protein(s) targeted by potent repurposed drug(s) in COVID-19.
Melatonin as a Radio-Sensitizer in Cancer
Radiotherapy is one of the treatments of choice in many types of cancer. Adjuvant treatments to radiotherapy try, on one hand, to enhance the response of tumor cells to radiation and, on the other hand, to reduce the side effects to normal cells.
Plasticity of glucose metabolism in activated immune cells: advantages for melatonin inhibition of COVID-19 disease
COVID-19 has infected hundreds of thousands and killed tens of thousands of people worldwide and it continues to ravage societies as well as fiscal and economic stability of several countries. Currently, several drugs that were designed for other conditions have been repurposed to counter the COVID-19 pandemic. Some have modest efficacy in resisting this disease, but all of them have significant toxicity. Several pharmaceutical companies are rushing to develop vaccines, but their availability is 8 to 12 months in the future. In the meantime, readily available and affordable molecules that will have utility as COVID-19 antidotes are being sought.
Melatonin, cardiovascular disease and COVID-19: A potential therapeutic strategy?
The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the requisite binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. SARS-CoV-2 induced endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular injury are probably initiated by increases in the phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. These pathological alterations are speculated to be strikingly reversed by melatonin.
Melatonin as adjuvant treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia patients requiring hospitalization (MAC-19 PRO): a case series
Treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) pneumonia remains empirical and the search for therapies that can improve outcomes continues. Melatonin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immune-modulating effects that may address key pathophysiologic mechanisms in the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which has been implicated as the likely cause of death in COVID19.
COVID-19 pathophysiology: interactions of gut microbiome, melatonin, vitamin D, stress, kynurenine and the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor: Treatment implications
As data emerges on the pathophysiological underpinnings of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2, it is clear that there are considerable variations in its susceptibility and severity/fatality, which give indications as to its pathophysiology and treatment.
Melatonin Inhibits COVID-19-induced Cytokine Storm by Reversing Aerobic Glycolysis in Immune Cells: A Mechanistic Analysis
The pathogenesis of a COVID-19 respiratory infection, in a major way, is related to what is referred to as the cytokine storm [cytokine storm syndrome (CSS, hypercytokinemia, etc.], i.e., it is a hyper-inflammatory response.
Therapeutic Algorithm for Use of Melatonin in Patients With COVID-19
The coronavirus, COVID-19, has infected hundreds of thousands and killed tens of thousands of individuals worldwide. This highly infectious condition continues to ravage the world population and has yet to reach it peak infective rate in some countries.
Network-based Drug Repurposing for Human Coronavirus.
Human Coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), lead global epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no effective drugs targeting 2019-nCoV.
COVID-19: Melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment.
This article summarizes the likely benefits of melatonin in the attenuation of COVID-19 based on its putative pathogenesis.
Melatonin in Mitochondria: Mitigating Clear and Present Dangers.
In cancer cells, glucose is primarily metabolized to pyruvate and then to lactate in the cytosol.
Melatonin alleviates cardiac fibrosis via inhibiting lncRNA MALAT1/miR-141-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome and TGF-β1/Smads signaling in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland, and it has extensive beneficial effects on various tissue and organs; however, whether melatonin has any effect on cardiac fibrosis in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is still unknown.