Medical Studies on Melatonin – Fertility
Fertility requires a healthy circadian rhythm, which is shaped by physiological melatonin levels. Any problem with the 24-hour cycle can have a negative impact on both female and male fertility.
Factors that prevent fertilisation
Factors include circadian rhythm disorders caused by jet lag and shift work, which adversely affects nocturnal melatonin production and ultimately prevents other hormones from being adequately produced. An impaired circadian rhythm also has a negative impact on the female menstruation cycle and can cause periods to become irregular or skipped, which can also have a negative impact on the reproductive system.
Melatonin and female fertility
Poor egg quality, often caused by oxidative stress, is considered to be one of the main causes of female infertility. With its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, melatonin can prevent cells from being damaged by free radicals, which is especially important for ovulation. Especially in artificial fertilisation, eggs are exposed to even greater stresses. Researchers recommend that melatonin be administered before IVF in this case to improve egg quality.
Melatonin and male fertility
To improve male fertility, melatonin not only serves to increase the energy of the spermatozoa but also makes them faster and more agile. Melatonin also protects sperm from oxidative stress and improves its quality, which is essential to achieve successful fertilisation.
Medical Studies on Melatonin – Fertility
New Insight on the In Vitro Effects of Melatonin in Preserving Human Sperm Quality
Spermatozoa (SPZ) are sensitive to stressful conditions, particularly oxidative stress, which alters their quality; thus, the use of protective molecules as an antioxidant is encouraged. Herein, we used melatonin (MLT) to investigate its in vitro effects on human sperm parameters under conditions of oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd).
The boosting effects of melatonin on the expression of related genes to oocyte maturation and antioxidant pathways: a polycystic ovary syndrome- mouse model
Melatonin, as a free radical scavenger exhibiting genomic actions, regulates the antioxidant genes expression and apoptosis mechanisms. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in follicular fluid leads to oxidative stress, aberrant folliculogenesis, and intrinsic defects in PCOS oocytes. In this experimental mouse model study, oocytes of PCOS and the control groups were cultured in different melatonin concentrations (10- 5, 10- 6, and 10- 7 M) to investigate the expression of oocyte maturation-related genes (Gdf9/Bmp15), antioxidant-related genes (Gpx1/Sod1), apoptotic biomarkers (Bcl2/Bax) and total intracellular ROS levels.
Melatonin Application in Assisted Reproductive Technology: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
To study whether melatonin treatment can increase clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles.
Association Between Sleep Quality and Semen Parameters and Reproductive Hormones: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang, China.
The effects of sleep duration on semen quality have been documented in many epidemiological studies. However, the association between sleep quality and semen parameters and reproductive hormones is still unclear.
Melatonin Promotes Uterine and Placental Health: Potential Molecular Mechanisms.
The development of the endometrium is a cyclic event tightly regulated by hormones and growth factors to coordinate the menstrual cycle while promoting a suitable microenvironment for embryo implantation during the "receptivity window". Many women experience uterine failures that hamper the success of conception, such as endometrium thickness, endometriosis, luteal phase defects, endometrial polyps, adenomyosis, viral infection, and even endometrial cancer; most of these disturbances involve changes in endocrine components or cell damage.
Impact of Melatonin Supplementation in Women with Unexplained Infertility Undergoing Fertility Treatment.
Unexplained infertility occurs when common causes for a couple's inability to conceive have been excluded. Although origins of idiopathic infertility are still unclear, factors, such as an altered oxidative balance, are believed to be involved. Melatonin is an outstanding antioxidant reportedly present in the follicular fluid (FF), which has been suggested as a useful tool in the management of human fertility.
From Implantation to Birth: Insight into Molecular Melatonin Functions.
Melatonin is a lipophilic hormone synthesized and secreted mainly in the pineal gland, acting as a neuroendocrine transducer of photoperiodic information during the night. In addition to this activity, melatonin has shown an antioxidant function and a key role as regulator of physiological processes related to human reproduction.
Melatonin prevents postovulatory oocyte aging and promotes subsequent embryonic development in the pig.
Oxidative stress is known as a major contributing factor involved in oocyte aging, which negatively affects oocyte quality and development after fertilization. Melatonin is an effective free radical scavenger and its metabolites AFMK and AMK are powerful detoxifiers that eliminate free radicals.
Melatonin and Fertoprotective Adjuvants: Prevention against Premature Ovarian Failure during Chemotherapy.
Premature ovarian failure is one of the side effects of chemotherapy in pre-menopausal cancer patients. Preservation of fertility has become increasingly important in improving the quality of life of completely recovered cancer patients.
Melatonin levels in follicular fluid as markers for IVF outcomes and predicting ovarian reserve.
Good-quality oocytes are critical for the success of in vitro fertilization (IVF), but, to date, there is no marker of ovarian reserve available that can accurately predict oocyte quality.
Melatonin improves the fertilization ability of post-ovulatory aged mouse oocytes by stabilizing ovastacin and Juno to promote sperm binding and fusion.
What are the underlying mechanisms of the decline in the fertilization ability of post-ovulatory aged oocytes?
How to Achieve High-Quality Oocytes? The Key Role of Myo-Inositol and Melatonin.
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have experienced growing interest from infertile patients seeking to become pregnant. The quality of oocytes plays a pivotal role in determining ART outcomes.
Effect of myo-inositol and melatonin versus myo-inositol, in a randomized controlled trial, for improving in vitro fertilization of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) induces anovulation in women of reproductive age, and is one of the pathological factors involved in the failure of in vitro fertilization (IVF).
Mitochondria Synthesize Melatonin to Ameliorate Its Function and Improve Mice Oocyte’s Quality under in Vitro Conditions.
The physiology of oocyte in vitro maturation remains elusive. Generally, the oocytes have a very low maturation rate under in vitro conditions.
Decreased melatonin levels and increased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in the seminal plasma are related to male infertility.
Melatonin, an indolamine secreted by the pineal gland, is known as a powerful free-radical scavenger and wide-spectrum antioxidant.
Melatonin and male reproductive health: relevance of darkness and antioxidant properties.
The pineal hormone melatonin controls several physiological functions that reach far beyond the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Moreover, it can be produced in extra-pineal organs such as reproductive organs.
Serum Levels of Melatonin and Oxidative Stress Markers and Correlation between Them in Infertile Men.
Infertility is the problem of 15% of young couples in different societies. One of the factors that could affect fertility is oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the level of Melatonin, a free radical scavenger, and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in infertile men.
Peripheral reproductive organ health and melatonin: ready for prime time.
Melatonin has a wide variety of beneficial actions at the level of the gonads and their adnexa. Some actions are mediated via its classic membrane melatonin receptors while others seem to be receptor-independent.
Melatonin prevents postovulatory oocyte aging in the mouse and extends the window for optimal fertilization in vitro.
The quality of metaphase II oocytes deteriorates rapidly following ovulation as the result of an aging process associated with impaired fertilizing potential, disrupted developmental competence, and increased likelihood of embryonic resorption.
The efficacy of melatonin administration on oocyte quality.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of melatonin administration on oocyte quality in women underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.
Effect of follicular fluid oxidative stress parameters on intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the follicular fluid (FF) reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ROS-TAC score and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
Melatonin ameliorates bisphenol A-induced biochemical toxicity in testicular mitochondria of mouse.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer of polycarbonate plastic used to manufacture plastic baby bottles and lining of food cans. It has endocrine-disrupting potential and exerts both toxic and estrogenic effects on mammalian cells.
Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.
This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation.
Melatonin improves the oocyte and the embryo in IVF patients with sleep disturbances, but does not improve the sleeping problems.
We aimed to analyse the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes of the patients with sleep disturbances who were administered melatonin.
High endogenous melatonin concentrations enhance sperm quality and short-term in vitro exposure to melatonin improves aspects of sperm motility.
Although human seminal fluid contains melatonin and spermatozoa reportedly possess membrane melatonin receptors, there are no experimental studies that have ascertained the relationship between melatonin and male infertility.
Melatonin as a potential tool against oxidative damage and apoptosis in ejaculated human spermatozoa.
It is assumed somatic cells can die in the apoptotic, the autophagic, or the necrotic way; however, the mechanisms of sperm death are not clear.
Effect of the treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin compared with myo-inositol plus folic acid alone on oocyte quality in women underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.
The in vitro effects of melatonin on human sperm function and its scavenging activities on NO and ROS.
Various systems of antioxidants exist endogenously in the body to help protect it against free radical damage by scavenging excessive ROS and RNS.
Melatonin and the ovary: physiological and pathophysiological implications.
To summarize the role of melatonin in the physiology and pathophysiology of the ovary.
Antioxidative potential of melatonin against mercury induced intoxication in spermatozoa in vitro.
Mercury is one of the most investigated natural elements and potential contaminants in the environment. Antioxidants have long been known to reduce the free radical-induced oxidative damage.
Oxidative stress impairs oocyte quality and melatonin protects oocytes from free radical damage and improves fertilization rate.
We investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and poor oocyte quality and whether the antioxidant melatonin improves oocyte quality.
Melatonin and the circadian system: contributions to successful female reproduction.
To summarize the role of melatonin and circadian rhythms in determining optimal female reproductive physiology, especially at the peripheral level.
Long-term melatonin administration does not alter pituitary-gonadal hormone secretion in normal men.
The role of melatonin in the regulation of reproduction in humans is still controversial. In the present study the effects of melatonin were examined, 6 mg given orally every day at 1700 h for 1 month in a double-blind, placebo controlled fashion, on the nocturnal secretory profiles of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and inhibin beta in six healthy adult men.
Effects of night shift on plasma concentrations of melatonin, LH, FSH and prolactin, and menstrual irregularity.
To examine the effect of night shift on the ovarian function, 122 teachers, 67 office workers, 377 nurses, 133 factory workers and 67 barmaids were surveyed.