Medical Studies on Melatonin – Fertility


Fertility requires a healthy circadian rhythm, which is shaped by physiological melatonin levels. Any problem with the 24-hour cycle can have a negative impact on both female and male fertility.

Factors that prevent fertilisation

Factors include circadian rhythm disorders caused by jet lag and shift work, which adversely affects nocturnal melatonin production and ultimately prevents other hormones from being adequately produced. An impaired circadian rhythm also has a negative impact on the female menstruation cycle and can cause periods to become irregular or skipped, which can also have a negative impact on the reproductive system.

Melatonin and female fertility

Poor egg quality, often caused by oxidative stress, is considered to be one of the main causes of female infertility. With its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, melatonin can prevent cells from being damaged by free radicals, which is especially important for ovulation. Especially in artificial fertilisation, eggs are exposed to even greater stresses. Researchers recommend that melatonin be administered before IVF in this case to improve egg quality.

Melatonin and male fertility

To improve male fertility, melatonin not only serves to increase the energy of the spermatozoa but also makes them faster and more agile. Melatonin also protects sperm from oxidative stress and improves its quality, which is essential to achieve successful fertilisation.

Medical Studies on Melatonin – Fertility

The boosting effects of melatonin on the expression of related genes to oocyte maturation and antioxidant pathways: a polycystic ovary syndrome- mouse model

2022-01 Nikmard F, Hosseini E, Bakhtiyari M, Ashrafi M, Amidi F, Aflatoonian R

Melatonin, as a free radical scavenger exhibiting genomic actions, regulates the antioxidant genes expression and apoptosis mechanisms. In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, an imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants in follicular fluid leads to oxidative stress, aberrant folliculogenesis, and intrinsic defects in PCOS oocytes. In this experimental mouse model study, oocytes of PCOS and the control groups were cultured in different melatonin concentrations (10- 5, 10- 6, and 10- 7 M) to investigate the expression of oocyte maturation-related genes (Gdf9/Bmp15), antioxidant-related genes (Gpx1/Sod1), apoptotic biomarkers (Bcl2/Bax) and total intracellular ROS levels.

Melatonin Promotes Uterine and Placental Health: Potential Molecular Mechanisms.

2019-12 Chuffa LGA, Lupi LA, Cucielo MS, Silveira HS, Reiter RJ, Seiva FRF

The development of the endometrium is a cyclic event tightly regulated by hormones and growth factors to coordinate the menstrual cycle while promoting a suitable microenvironment for embryo implantation during the "receptivity window". Many women experience uterine failures that hamper the success of conception, such as endometrium thickness, endometriosis, luteal phase defects, endometrial polyps, adenomyosis, viral infection, and even endometrial cancer; most of these disturbances involve changes in endocrine components or cell damage.

Impact of Melatonin Supplementation in Women with Unexplained Infertility Undergoing Fertility Treatment.

2019-08 Espino J, Macedo M, Lozano G, Ortiz Á, Rodríguez C, Rodríguez AB, Bejarano I

Unexplained infertility occurs when common causes for a couple's inability to conceive have been excluded. Although origins of idiopathic infertility are still unclear, factors, such as an altered oxidative balance, are believed to be involved. Melatonin is an outstanding antioxidant reportedly present in the follicular fluid (FF), which has been suggested as a useful tool in the management of human fertility.

Serum Levels of Melatonin and Oxidative Stress Markers and Correlation between Them in Infertile Men.

2013-11 Soleimani Rad S, Abbasalizadeh S, Ghorbani Haghjo A, Sadagheyani M, Montaseri A, Soleimani Rad J

Infertility is the problem of 15% of young couples in different societies. One of the factors that could affect fertility is oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the level of Melatonin, a free radical scavenger, and its correlation with oxidative biomarkers in infertile men.

Effect of the treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin in comparison with a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid on oocyte quality and pregnancy outcome in IVF cycles. A prospective, clinical trial.

2010-06 Rizzo P, Raffone E, Benedetto V

The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment with myo-inositol plus folic acid plus melatonin compared with myo-inositol plus folic acid alone on oocyte quality in women underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles.

Long-term melatonin administration does not alter pituitary-gonadal hormone secretion in normal men.

2000-01 Luboshitzky R, Levi M, Shen-Orr Z, Blumenfeld Z, Herer P, Lavie P

The role of melatonin in the regulation of reproduction in humans is still controversial. In the present study the effects of melatonin were examined, 6 mg given orally every day at 1700 h for 1 month in a double-blind, placebo controlled fashion, on the nocturnal secretory profiles of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and inhibin beta in six healthy adult men.

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