Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a newly discovered highly pathogenic virus that was declared pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The virus affects the respiratory system, produces an inflammatory storm that causes lung damage and respiratory dysfunction. It infects humans of all ages.
The Covid-19 takes a more severe course in individuals with chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This category of persons exhibits weak immune activity and decreased levels of endogenous antioxidants. Melatonin is a multifunctional signaling hormone synthesized and secreted primarily by the pineal gland. It is a potent antioxidant with immunomodulatory action and has remarkable anti-inflammatory effects under a variety of circumstances.
Regarding Covid-19 and metabolic syndrome, adequate information about the relationship between these two comorbidities is required for better management of these patients. Since Covid-19 infection and complications involve severe inflammation and oxidative stress in people with obesity and diabetes, we anticipated the inclusion of melatonin, as powerful antioxidant, within proposed treatment protocols.
In this context, melatonin is a potential and promising agent to help overcome Covid-19 infection and boost the immune system in healthy persons and obese and diabetic patients. This review summarizes some evidence from recently published reports on the utility of melatonin as a potential adjuvant in Covid-19-infected individuals with diabetes and obesity.