Medical Studies on Melatonin

A Review of the Potential Effects of Melatonin in Compromised Mitochondrial Redox Activities in Elderly Patients With COVID-19

2022-06 Su WL, Wu CC, Wu SV, Lee MC, Liao MT, Lu KC, Lu CL

Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule widely distributed in the body. It efficiently regulates pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines under various pathophysiological conditions. The melatonin rhythm, which is strongly associated with oxidative lesions and mitochondrial dysfunction, is also observed during the biological process of aging. Melatonin levels decline considerably with age and are related to numerous age-related illnesses.

Melatonin drugs inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into the brain and virus-induced damage of cerebral small vessels

2022-06 Cecon E, Fernandois D, Renault N, Coelho CFF, Wenzel J, Bedart C, Izabelle C, Gallet S, Le Poder S, Klonjkowski B, Schwaninger M, Prevot V, Dam J, Jockers R

COVID-19 is a complex disease with short- and long-term respiratory, inflammatory and neurological symptoms that are triggered by the infection with SARS-CoV-2. Invasion of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 has been observed in humans and is postulated to be involved in post-COVID state. Brain infection is particularly pronounced in the K18-hACE2 mouse model of COVID-19. Prevention of brain infection in the acute phase of the disease might thus be of therapeutic relevance to prevent long-lasting symptoms of COVID-19.

Unbalanced IDO1/IDO2 Endothelial Expression and Skewed Keynurenine Pathway in the Pathogenesis of COVID-19 and Post-COVID-19 Pneumonia

2022-06 Chilosi M, Doglioni C, Ravaglia C, Martignoni G, Salvagno GL, Pizzolo G, Bronte V, Poletti V

Despite intense investigation, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the newly defined long COVID-19 syndrome are not fully understood. Increasing evidence has been provided of metabolic alterations characterizing this group of disorders, with particular relevance of an activated tryptophan/kynurenine pathway as described in this review.

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Key Emphasis on Melatonin Safety and Therapeutic Efficacy

2021-07 Ramos E, López-Muñoz F, Gil-Martín E, Egea J, Álvarez-Merz I, Painuli S, Semwal P, Martins N, Hernández-Guijo JM, Romero A

Viral infections constitute a tectonic convulsion in the normophysiology of the hosts. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is not an exception, and therefore the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, like any other invading microbe, enacts a generalized immune response once the virus contacts the body.

Inflammation, immunity and potential target therapy of SARS-COV-2: A total scale analysis review

2021-04 Smail SW, Saeed M, Alkasalias T, Khudhur ZO, Younus DA, Rajab MF, Abdulahad WH, Hussain HI, Niaz K, Safdar M

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a complex disease that causes illness ranging from mild to severe respiratory problems. It is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) that is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus belongs to coronavirus CoV family.

Melatonin is a potential adjuvant to improve clinical outcomes in individuals with obesity and diabetes with coexistence of Covid-19

2020-09 El-Missiry MA, El-Missiry ZMA, Othman AI

Coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a newly discovered highly pathogenic virus that was declared pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization. The virus affects the respiratory system, produces an inflammatory storm that causes lung damage and respiratory dysfunction. It infects humans of all ages.

Matrix metallopeptidase 9 as a host protein target of chloroquine and melatonin for immunoregulation in COVID-19: A network-based meta-analysis

2020-07 Hazra S, Chaudhuri AG, Tiwary BK, Chakrabartia N

The molecular pathogenesis of COVID-19 is similar to other coronavirus (CoV) infections viz. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in human. Due to scarcity of the suitable treatment strategy, the present study was undertaken to explore host protein(s) targeted by potent repurposed drug(s) in COVID-19.

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