angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

Medical Studies on Melatonin

Plasticity of glucose metabolism in activated immune cells: advantages for melatonin inhibition of COVID-19 disease

2020-06 Reiter RJ, Sharma R, Ma Q, Liu C, Manucha W, Abreu-Gonzalez P, Dominguez-Rodriguez A

COVID-19 has infected hundreds of thousands and killed tens of thousands of people worldwide and it continues to ravage societies as well as fiscal and economic stability of several countries.  Currently, several drugs that were designed for other conditions have been repurposed to counter the COVID-19 pandemic.  Some have modest efficacy in resisting this disease, but all of them have significant toxicity.  Several pharmaceutical companies are rushing to develop vaccines, but their availability is 8 to 12 months in the future.  In the meantime, readily available and affordable molecules that will have utility as COVID-19 antidotes are being sought.

Melatonin, cardiovascular disease and COVID-19: A potential therapeutic strategy?

2020-06 Dominguez-Rodriguez A, Abreu-Gonzalez P, Marik PE, Reiter RJ 

The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the requisite binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. SARS-CoV-2 induced endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular injury are probably initiated by increases in the phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. These pathological alterations are speculated to be strikingly reversed by melatonin.

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