The mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 infection is the requisite binding of the virus to the membrane-bound form of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and internalization of the complex by the host cell. SARS-CoV-2 induced endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular injury are probably initiated by increases in the phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. These pathological alterations are speculated to be strikingly reversed by melatonin.
Melatonin, cardiovascular disease and COVID-19: A potential therapeutic strategy?
Dominguez-Rodriguez A, Abreu-Gonzalez P, Marik PE, Reiter RJ
Melatonin Research. 3, 3 (Jun. 2020), 318-321