Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers between women and is known as the third leading cause of female cancer related deaths annually. Its detection in early stages allows it to be a preventable and generally treatable disease.
Increasing evidence revealed, a variety of internal and external factors are associated with initiation and progression of cervical cancer pathogenesis. Human papilloma virus infection is found as a major cause of cervical cancer. Other molecular and biochemical alterations as well as genetic and epigenetic changes are related cervical cancer progression. Current treatment options often have severe side effects and toxicities thus, new adjuvant agents having synergistic effects and ability to decrease different side effects and toxicities are needed. Melatonin is an indolamine compound secreted from the pineal gland which shows wide range anticancer activities.
A large amount of studies indicated inhibitory effects of melatonin against various types of cancers. In addition, experimental evidence reports inhibitory effects of melatonin as an adjuvant therapy on cervical cancer by targeting a sequence of different molecular mechanisms. Herein, for first time, we summarized anticervical cancer effects of melatonin and its underlying molecular mechanisms.