Renal fibrosis, a major risk factor for kidney failure, can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is caused by cytoskeleton reorganization and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the potential of melatonin treatment to reduce renal fibrosis by recovering the cytoskeleton reorganization and mitochondrial dysfunction.
We found that miR-4516 expression was downregulated in the renal cortex of CKD mice and P-cresol-treated TH1 cells. Decreased miR-4516 expression stimulated cytoskeleton reorganization and mitochondrial dysfunction, and induced renal fibrosis. Melatonin treatment suppressed fibrosis by inhibiting cytoskeleton reorganization and restoring mitochondrial function via increased miR-4516 expression.
More specifically, melatonin treatment increased miR-4516 expression while decreasing ITGA9 expression, thereby inhibiting cytoskeleton reorganization. In addition, increased expression of miR-4516 by melatonin treatment reduced ROS formation and restored mitochondrial function.
These findings suggest that melatonin may be a promising treatment for patients with CKD having renal fibrosis. Moreover, regulation of miR-4516 expression may be a novel strategy for the treatment of renal fibrosis.