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Medical Studies on Melatonin

Melatonin ameliorates Parkinson’s disease via regulating microglia polarization in a RORα-dependent pathway

2022-07 Li J, Liu H, Wang X, Xia Y, Huang J, Wang T, Lin Z, Xiong N

An important pathophysiological component of Parkinson's Disease (PD) is circadian rhythm disorder, closely related to a decrease in circulated melatonin (MLT) level. It has been reported recently that retinoic acid-associated orphan nuclear receptor (RORα), for the potentiallyendogenous ligand MLT, plays an important role in various diseases.

A Review of the Potential Effects of Melatonin in Compromised Mitochondrial Redox Activities in Elderly Patients With COVID-19

2022-06 Su WL, Wu CC, Wu SV, Lee MC, Liao MT, Lu KC, Lu CL

Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule widely distributed in the body. It efficiently regulates pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines under various pathophysiological conditions. The melatonin rhythm, which is strongly associated with oxidative lesions and mitochondrial dysfunction, is also observed during the biological process of aging. Melatonin levels decline considerably with age and are related to numerous age-related illnesses.

Melatonin drugs inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into the brain and virus-induced damage of cerebral small vessels

2022-06 Cecon E, Fernandois D, Renault N, Coelho CFF, Wenzel J, Bedart C, Izabelle C, Gallet S, Le Poder S, Klonjkowski B, Schwaninger M, Prevot V, Dam J, Jockers R

COVID-19 is a complex disease with short- and long-term respiratory, inflammatory and neurological symptoms that are triggered by the infection with SARS-CoV-2. Invasion of the brain by SARS-CoV-2 has been observed in humans and is postulated to be involved in post-COVID state. Brain infection is particularly pronounced in the K18-hACE2 mouse model of COVID-19. Prevention of brain infection in the acute phase of the disease might thus be of therapeutic relevance to prevent long-lasting symptoms of COVID-19.

Unbalanced IDO1/IDO2 Endothelial Expression and Skewed Keynurenine Pathway in the Pathogenesis of COVID-19 and Post-COVID-19 Pneumonia

2022-06 Chilosi M, Doglioni C, Ravaglia C, Martignoni G, Salvagno GL, Pizzolo G, Bronte V, Poletti V

Despite intense investigation, the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and the newly defined long COVID-19 syndrome are not fully understood. Increasing evidence has been provided of metabolic alterations characterizing this group of disorders, with particular relevance of an activated tryptophan/kynurenine pathway as described in this review.

Biological correlates of altered circadian rhythms, autonomic functions and sleep problems in autism spectrum disorder

2022-05 Dell'Osso L, Massoni L, Battaglini S, Cremone IM, Carmassi C, Carpita B

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by a complex and multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome. In the last decades, several studies highlighted an increased prevalence of sleep problems in ASD, which would be associated with autonomic system and circadian rhythm disruption.

Melatonin ameliorates tau-related pathology via the miR-504-3p and CDK5 axis in Alzheimer’s disease

2022-05 Chen D, Lan G, Li R, Mei Y, Shui X, Gu X, Wang L, Zhang T, Gan CL, Xia Y, Hu L, Tian Y, Zhang M, Lee TH

Intracellular accumulation of the microtubule-associated protein tau and its hyperphosphorylated forms is a key neuropathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Melatonin has been shown to prevent tau hyperphosphorylation in cellular and animal models. However, the molecular mechanisms by which melatonin attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and tau-related pathologies are not fully understood.

The rationale for treating uveal melanoma with adjuvant melatonin: a review of the literature

2022-04 Hagström A, Kal Omar R, Williams PA, Stålhammar G

Uveal melanoma is a rare form of cancer with high mortality. The incidence of metastases is attributed to early seeding of micrometastases from the eye to distant organs, primarily the liver. Once these seeded clusters of dormant tumor cells grow into larger radiologically detectable macrometastases, median patient survival is about 1 year. Melatonin is an important hormone for synchronizing circadian rhythms. It is also involved in other aspects of human physiology and may offer therapeutic benefits for a variety of diseases including cancer.

Melatonin synthesized by activated microglia orchestrates the progression of microglia from a pro-inflammatory to a recovery/repair phenotype

2022-03 Souza ES, Santo AA, Ribeiro-Paz EE, Córdoba-Moreno M, Trevisan IL, Caldeira W, Muxel SM, Sousa KD, Markus RP

Microglia, the sentinels of the central nervous system, are responsible for the surveillance and the innate defense against pathogen or danger/damage-associated molecular patterns. The response is fine-tuned to restrain pro-inflammatory responses, preserving neighboring cells. At the injured area, microglia temporarily shift to a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1), followed by anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotypes. The duration and magnitude of the pro-inflammatory phase are finely regulated to avoid unnecessary loss of brain tissue.

Melatonin, macrophages and microbiota: Interactions

2022-03 Reiter RJ

This commentary summarizes and highlights the recent research reports of the group headed by Professor Wenkai Ren. Their research has been focused in two important investigative areas, namely, the role of melatonin in the regulation of macrophage polarization and the functional implications of melatonin for the gastrointestinal microbiota. Both these subjects are of high interest to melatonin biologists since both have significant implications in clinical and veterinary medicine.

Melatonin enhances osteoblastogenesis of senescent bone marrow stromal cells through NSD2-mediated chromatin remodelling

2022-02 Xie Y, Han N, Li F, Wang L, Liu G, Hu M, Wang S, Wei X, Guo J, Jiang H, Wang J, Li X, Wang Y, Bian X, Zhu Z, Zhang H, Liu C, Liu X, Liu Z

Aging-associated osteoporosis is frequently seen in the elderly in clinic, but efficient managements are limited because of unclear nosogenesis. The current study aims to investigate the role of melatonin on senescent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and the underlying regulating mechanism.

Melatonin: highlighting its use as a potential treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection

2022-02 Reiter RJ, Sharma R, Simko F, Dominguez-Rodriguez A, Tesarik J, Neel RL, Slominski AT, Kleszczynski K, Martin-Gimenez VM, Manucha W, Cardinali DP

Numerous pharmaceutical drugs have been repurposed for use as treatments for COVID-19 disease. These drugs have not consistently demonstrated high efficacy in preventing or treating this serious condition and all have side effects to differing degrees. We encourage the continued consideration of the use of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, melatonin, as a countermeasure to a SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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